The Arabian Peninsula is the birthplace of is one of the hottest and driest regions in the world. since ancient times nomadic tribes had populated the region. Considered the descendants of Noah’s third son Shem they called as Semites. Over the centuries Semitic peoples have migrated into the Fertile Crescent. And after that they were assimilated to into the existing civilisation.

North of the Arabian Peninsula in the sixth century AD there were two great powers. First of all The Christian Byzantine kingdom. Another were successors of the Roman Empire was to the Northwest and they controlled the North Africa, the lands of Palestine and Mediterranean Sea. for trade and conquest Arab tribes allied to the Byzantine and Persian kingdoms.

The Arabian Peninsula was a land of refuge for those seeking escape from both of these empires. Heretic Christian sects like the Jewish tribes and Nestorius escaping the oppressive Byzantines found refuge in the protective deserts and in the Peninsula cities.

Map of Pre-Islamic Arabia, divided into tribes and cities. Each city Arabia had gods and goddess. Each year the tribes and cities of Arabia would meet in the Mecca City during an event known as the Hajj. In Mecca 360 idols from all the tribes of Arabia housed in a large cube shaped building called the Kaba (Cube).

The Kaba, It was the centre of Arabian religious life. Here they circled the Kaba and Here all the warring tribes would put aside their differences. From the Kaba they would proceed to the other shrines outside of Mecca during this five-day religious event. The Hajj was a tradition for Arabs of the peninsula.


The Prophet Muhammad sall Allahu alay-hi wa-sallam (s.a.a.w):

The Prophet Muhammad(s.a.a.w) was born in Makkah in the year 570AD. Before he was born his father died and his mother Amina died shortly thereafter, his uncle Abu Talib raised him as his own son. As he grew up, he became known to be honest, generous, trustworthy, truthful and sincere. He was so truthful that they called him trustworthy. At age 40, Muhammad (s.a.a.w) received his first revelation from God through the Angel Gabriel in the cave named Hira. The revelations (known as “Ayah”) which Muhammad reported receiving continued for twenty-three years, and they are collectively known as Quran.

As soon as he started recite the Quran. And to exhort the truth which God had revealed to him, he and his small group of followers go through expulsion from unbelievers. To escape persecution in the year 622 God gave them direction to emigrate. This emigration from Makkah to the city of Madinah’s called  Hijra. Since it is the beginning of the Islamic calendar, known as the Hijri Calendar. After several years, Muhammad and his followers marched on the city of Mecca, where they excuse their adversary. Before Muhammad died, most of Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam. And within a century of his death, Islam had reach to Spain in the West and as far East as China. This is according to

He died, at age sixty-three. The reason for the fast expansion of Islam was the truth and clarity of its doctrine. Islam calls for belief in only one God, who is the only one worthy of worship.

The Prophet Muhammad was a perfect example of truthful, honest, merciful, compassionate, just and brave human being. However, he was far removed from all evil characteristics and strove solely for the sake of God and His reward in the Hereafter.

The Hadith

Hadith describes different type of words such as habit of Prophet Muhammad and Islamic action. It is a tradition, After the death of Prophet Muhammad his follower selected all his saying and action in a book to guide and direct their believers to the right direction. They additionally give meaning behind every surah which help to interpret the meaning. Hadith is second to the Quran in developing Islamic Jurisprudence. Since Prudence discussed the divine that teaches us laws and pass it to our worldly life.

Ex: – Hadith: Action by the intentions.

It means: –

“Actions are according to intentions, and everyone will get what intended. Whoever migrates with an intention for Allah and His messenger, the migration will be for the sake of Allah and his Messenger. And whoever migrates for worldly gain or to marry a woman, then his migration will be for the sake of whatever he migrated for.”

Related by Bukhari & Muslim.

One submit to Allah by confession of the 5 Pillars of faith, besides the 5 major beliefs in Islam, every Muslim has duty to observe it.

The Five Pillars of Faith



  1.  Shahadah
  2. Salah
  3. Zakah
  4. Sawm
  5. Hajj


Shahadat is the declaration of trust that there is only one GOD (Allah). While Prophet Muhammad is God’s messenger. It normally recites in Arabic “ lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh “ for becoming a Muslim. Hence it is essential TO recite it. In Islam first reflected part is Shahadat. Its related to Worship and Rituals. Recitation of Shahadat is the most common thing for every Muslim. Every Muslim has to recite it every day as much he can do.


Salah means Islamic prayer. Every Muslim have to prayer 5 times a day.

Fajar prayer performed before sunrise

Zohar prayer performed after the sun surpassed its highest point.

Asar prayer performed before sunset

Magrib prayer performed after sunset

and night prayer i.e Isha prayer. All these prayers recited by facing in the direction of Kaaba in Makkah.


It is the practice of giving of accumulated wealth. Its said that zakat is compulsory for each single thing we purchased. Sadaqah is also a charity given by rich Muslims to the poor one. Zakat based on income and the value of all one’s professions. It is customarily 2.5% of a Muslim’s total savings. And wealth above a smallest amount known as nisab, but Islamic scholars differ on how much nisab is and other aspects of zakat.


Fasting Is an act during Ramadan Fasting is necessary to a Muslim unless she/he suffers from a medical condition. The prophet Muhammad (s.a.a.w) said, “Whoever observes the fast during the month of Ramadan, (while) believing in Allah and seeking His rewards, will have his past sins forgiven.” Fasting the month of Ramadan is one of the main pillars of Islam. It is obligatory upon every sane, healthy Muslim whose reached puberty and is not travelling during the time of fasting. As for women, they must not fast if they are menstruating or having post-childbirth bleeding.

5.Hajj:-Pilgrim to Mecca

Finally, Hajj is the Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca. It’s a religious duty for a Muslim to go to Mecca once in their lifetime. But who are physically and financially capable of taking care of their family. Hajj carried out at Dhu al Hijjah, last month of Islamic calendar. Hajj carried out 5 days’ period. Hence Every day they have to go each place in mecca. It is compulsory to wear a Ahram during Hajj.

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